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PostSubject: Networking   Fri Aug 01, 2008 9:50 am

Networking
Web, SNMP, admin, firewalls

Miscellaneous



Web Services




Terms:


* Intranet - Refers to using internet technologies such as a web server on an internal network.
* HTTP
- Hypertext Transfer Protocol is the protocol used to communicate
between web servers and web browser software clients.
* NNTP - Network News Transport Protocol is used to link newsgroups for discussions on the web.
* FTP - File Transport Protocol is used to transfer files between computers.



SNMP




Network
management consists of network management stations communicating with
network elements such as hosts, routers, servers, or printers. The
agent is the software on the network element (host, router, printer)
that runs the network management software. Therefore when the word
agent is used it is referring to the network element. The agent will
store information in a management information base (MIB). Management
software will poll the various network devices and get the information
stored in them. RFC 1155, 1157, and 1213 define SNMP with RFC 1157
defining the protocol itself. The manager uses UDP port 61 to send
requests to the agent and the agent uses UDP port 62 to send replies or
messages to the manager. The manager can ask for data from the agent or
set variable values in the agent. Agents can reply and report events.


There are three supporting pieces to TCP/IP network management:


1. Management Information BASE (MIB) specifies variables the network elements maintain.
2. A set of common structures and a way to reference the variables in the database.
3. The protocol used to communicate between the manager and the network element agent which is SNMP.




* Managed devices - An agent runs on the devices to collect information to be sent to the Management console.
* Management console - where the network management information is stored and managed.
* Proxy agent - Performs functions for devices that cannot run agents such as printers.



Microsoft's Systems Management Server (SMS)




Used to monitor, administer, and manage large networks. It includes:


* Inventory
Management - Creates a SQL Server Database with information about
processor use, RAM, applications, disk use, and operating systems.
* Software Distribution - Installation and configuration of software upgrades can be automated.
* Shared Application Management - Updates routing information automatically on clients when applications are moved.
* Remote Control and Network Monitor -Used to control and monitor remote clients.



Firewalls




Types of firewalls:


1. Packet Filtering - Blocks selected network packets.
2. Circuit
Level Relay - SOCKS is an example of this type of firewall. This type
of proxy is not aware of applications but just cross links your
connects to another outside connection. It can log activity, but not as
detailed as an application proxy. It only works with TCP connections,
and doesn't provide for user authentication.
3. Application
Proxy Gateway - The users connect to the outside using the proxy. The
proxy gets the information and returns it to the user. The proxy can
record everything that is done. This type of proxy may require a user
login to use it. Rules may be set to allow some functions of an
application to be done and other functions denied. The "get" function
may be allowed in the FTP application, but the "put" function may not.




Proxy Servers can be used to perform the following functions.


* Control outbound connections and data.
* Monitor outbound connections and data.
* Cache
requested data which can increase system bandwidth performance and
decrease the time it takes for other users to read the same data.




Application proxy servers can perform the following additional functions:


* Provide for user authentication.
* Allow and deny application specific functions.
* Apply stronger authentication mechanisms to some applications.



Administration




Terms:


* Workgroup
- A means of categorizing machines into groups for easier management.
Microsoft recommends that a domain be used to handle management rather
than a workgroup when the size of the group is 10 or more.
* Domain
- With regard to administration it is not the same as a domain as
referenced on the internet and by DNS, it is a means to group computers
together on a network to manage them and their users.
* Primary
Domain Controller (PDC) - Contains a database with user information and
is used to authenticate users when access to network resources is
requested.
* Backup
Domain Controller (BDC) - The PDC sends its database to this controller
and it will operate as PDC if the PDC fails.
* Share level security - There is a password for each network resource. There is no central control of network access.
* User
level security - Access to network resources is managed on a user
basis. There is a central PDC server with a list of user accounts which
provides authentication.




Learn about user auditing in NT.


NT supports the following types of groups:


* Local
groups - Rights and permission is granted only to use resources on the
local domain. Members of trusted domains can be added to local groups
in Windows NT, but normally only local members are added to the local
group.
* Global
Groups - Several user accounts from a domain grouped in one account
name. They can only contain user accounts from the single domain that
created the global group.
* Special Groups - Used by internal processes in the operating system to provide service such as e-mail and task scheduling.
* Built-in Groups - Used to do maintenance and administrative work. Typical groups are:

o Administrative
- They have full access to the network and can start and shut down
servers. They can create, delete, and modify user accounts, local
groups, and global groups.
o Operator
- Have the ability to perform some administrative tasks such as file
maintenance, and data backup and recovery.
o Others - Other capabilities include management of department, or printer accounts.




NT uses a tool called "User Manager for Domains" to add and maintain user accounts.

Perfmon




Performance
Monitor (perfmon) is a utility with Windows NT Server and Workstation
which allows tracking of multiple system parameters monitoring of
network performance. It can monitor microprocessor use, hard drive use,
memory use, and much more.

Processor Utilization




* Percent processor time
* Processor queue length which indicates the number of processes in queue to be run.




Windows NT counts for memory page faults and pages retrieved from virtual memory every second:


* Page faults per second which is the number of times a page was not found in real memory.
* Pages per second is the number of pages retrieved per second to satisfy page faults.
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PostSubject: Re: Networking   Fri Aug 01, 2008 9:51 am

Network Troubleshooting



Documentation




Document the network installation and configuration.


* Cable installation information - Cable types with network diagrams showing jacks.
* Equipment information - Where the equipment was purchased with serial numbers, vendors and warranty information.
* Network resources - Document commonly used resources including drive mappings.
* Network addressing - Record the allocation of network addresses with diagrams.
* Network connections - Document or diagram how your network is connected to other networks.
* Software
configuration - Software is installed on each network node outlining
the sequence of software and driver installation required. Also
document configuration files.
* User administration - Determine methods and policies for user names, passwords, and groups.
* Policies and procedures - Be sure network policies and procedures are defined and necessary personnel are aware of them.
* Base network performance - Determine normal traffic levels on the network.
* Hardware or software changes - document all changes to the network and record dates.
* Software licenses - Be sure you have valid software licenses for all software with license serial numbers recorded.
* Keep a history of troubleshooting - Record network problems and their solutions.



Troubleshooting and network management tools




* SMS
- Systems Management Server from Microsoft can collect information of
software on each computer and can install and configure new software on
the client computers. It will also monitor network traffic.



Performance Monitoring Benefits




* Identify network bottlenecks.
* Identifying network traffic pattern trends.
* Provide information to help develop plans for increasing network performance.
* Determine the effects of hardware or software changes.
* Provide information to help forecast future needs.



Microsoft Complex Problem Structured Approach




1. Set the problemís priority
2. Identify the symptoms.
3. Determine possible causes.
4. Perform tests to determine the problem cause.
5. Identify a solution by studying the test results.



Troubleshooting Tools




* DVM - Digital volt meter.
* TDR
- Time-domain reflectometer sends a sonar like electrical pulse down a
cable and can determine the location of a break in the cable. The pulse
is reflected back to the TDR and the TDR can tell where the break is by
timing the time it takes for the pulse to return.
* Protocol
analyzers - They are usually a mix of hardware and software and may
also be referred to as network analyzers. They monitor network traffic
and examining packets, collecting data that helps determine the network
performance. They can locate:

o Faulty NICs or components
o Network bottlenecks
o Abnormal network traffic from a computer
o Conflicting applications
o Connection errors




Windows NT Server 4.0 includes the Network Monitor tool which is a software based protocol analyzer.


* Advanced
cable testers - Can determine a cable's impedance, resistance,
attenuation, and if the cable is broke or shorted. Advanced cable
testers can acquire information about message network collisions, frame
counts, and congestion errors.




If Thinnet cable is broken its resistance would go from the normal of 50 ohms to infinity.


* Network
monitors - Used to monitor network traffic. They can examine network
packets, where they are from and where they are going. They can also
generate reports and shows graphic statistics about the network. The
network monitors work through all layers of the OSI model except the
hardware layer. Windows NT provides the Performance Monitor tool
software as a network monitor.
* Terminators
- They are placed on one end of a network cable so the cable will have
proper impedance. This is also a way to check the cable to be sure it
is not broken.
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PostSubject: Re: Networking   Fri Aug 01, 2008 9:52 am

Backing up the Network




Items to do when considering network backups.


* Set a backup schedule.
* Determine data to be backed up and its importance to determine a backup schedule.
* Determine
backup methods, media, and equipment to use. Backup methods include
full backup, file copy, backup changed files without marking files as
backed up (differential backup), or backup only the files that have
changed since the last backup and mark them as backed up (incremental
backup).
* Determine where to store backup information such as a safe.
* Test the backup and restore capability of the backup system and its media to be sure it really works.
* Maintain backup logs.



Redundant Array of Inexpensive disks (RAID)




RAID
is a fault tolerant method of storing data, meaning that a failure can
occur and the system will still function. The various RAID categories
are:


* 0
- Disk striping - Data is written across multiple drives in parallel.
Different parts of the data is written at the same time to more than
one drive. If there are two drives, half the data is written to one
drive, while the rest of the data is written to the other drive. All
partitions on striped drives must be the same size. No fault tolerance
is provided with RAID-0.
* 1
- Disk mirroring - All the data is written to two drives so each drive
has a complete of all stored data. If one drive fails, the other can be
used to get a copy of the data. To be more fault tolerant, more than
one controller card may be used to control the mirrored hard drives.
This is called disk duplexing and will allow the system to keep
functioning if one controller card fails.
* 2 - Disk striping with error correction codes (ECC).
* 3 - Disk striping with ECC parity information stored on a separate drive.
* 4 - Disk striping with blocks with parity information stored on a separate drive.
* 5
- Disk striping with blocks with parity information stored using
multiple drives. Uses five disks with one fifth of each one to store
parity information.



Sector Sparing




Sector
sparing will detect when data is going to be read from or written to a
bad sector on the hard drive and will move the data to a good sector.
The bad sector is marked as not available so it is not used again.

Windows NT support




Supports RAID-0,1, and 5 along with sector sparing.


Terms:


* DAT - Digital Audio Tape.
* Sector
Sparing - A method of fault tolerance that automatically identifies and
marks bad sectors as not available. It is also called hot-fixing.
* SLED
- Single Large Inexpensive disk - The concept that a large disk costs
less per amount of storage than several smaller ones. Somehow this
concept is used as a means of fault tolerance.



Labels:
Networking

Network Applications, mail, groupware, DBMS

Network Applications, mail, groupware, DBMS


There are three categories of applications with regard to networks:


1. Stand alone applications - Includes editors.
2. Network versions of stand alone applications - May be licensed for multiple users.
3. Applications only for a network include databases, mail, group scheduling, groupware.


Models for network applications


1. Client-server
- Processing is split between the client which interacts with the user
and the server performing back end processing.
2. Shared file systems - The server is used for file storage and the processing of the file is done on the client computer.
3. Applications
that are centralized - An example is a Telnet session. The data and the
program run on the central computer and the user uses an interface such
as the Telnet client or X server to send commands to the central
computer and to see the results.



E-mail Systems




* Novell GroupWise - Also called Windows Messaging
* Microsoft Mail
* Microsoft
Exchange - This is for the Microsoft Exchange Server. There is a
Microsoft Exchange client for the Microsoft Exchange server and a
client for an internet mail account only.
* Lotus Notes
* cc:Mail - From Lotus and IBM




There
are four types of programs used in the process of sending and receiving
mail as defined by the CCITT X.400 specification. They are:


* MUA
- Mail users agent. This is the program a user will use to type e-mail.
It usually incorporates an editor for support. The user types the mail
and it is passed to the sending MTA. This may also be called the user
agent (UA).
* MTA
- Message transfer agent is used to pass mail from the sending machine
to the receiving machine. There is a MTA program running on both the
sending and receiving machine. Sendmail is a MTA.
* MS - Message Store is a storage area for messages that canít be delivered immediately when the recipient is off-line.
* AU - Access Unit provides access to resources like fax, telex, and teletex.
* LDA - Local delivery agent on the receiving machine receives the mail from its MTA. This program is usually procmail.
* Mail
notifier - This program notifies the recipient that they have mail.
Normally this requires two programs, biff and comsat. Biff allows the
administrator or user to turn on comsat service.
* Directory
service - Used to provide user names on the system. Microsoft provides
Global Address List and Personal Address Book.




Other components of mail service include:


* Directory services - A list of users on a system. Microsoft provides a Global Address List and a Personal Address Book.
* Post Office - This is where the messages are stored.



Mail Protocols




* SMTP
- Simple Mail Transport Protocol is used on the internet, it is not a
transport layer protocol but is an application layer protocol.
* POP3
- Post Office Protocol version 3 is used by clients to access an
internet mail server to get mail. It is not a transport layer protocol.
* IMAP4 - Internet Mail Access Protocol version 4 is the replacement for POP3.
* MIME - Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension is the protocol that defines the way files are attached to SMTP messages.
* X.400
- International Telecommunication Union standard defines transfer
protocols for sending mail between mail servers.
* MHS - Message Handling Service by Novell is used for mail on Netware networks.



Mail API




Mail application programming interfaces (APIs) allow e-mail support to be integrated into application programs.


* MAPI - Microsoft's Messaging API which is incorporated throughout Microsoft's office products.
* VIM - Vendor-Independent Messaging protocol from Lotus is supported by many vendors exclusive of Microsoft.



Message Handling Service (MHS)




* MHS and Global MHS by Novell
* MHS by OSI - It is called MOTIS (message-oriented text interchange system).



Scheduling systems




* Microsoft Schedule+
* Lotus Organizer



Groupware




Used
for various electronic communication to enable a group to work together
better. Functions may include group discussion, submission of reports
and time sheets electronically, an on line help desk database, forms
design and access, and creating a document as a group such as
configuration management. Groupware software includes Lotus Notes,
Microsoft Exchange, internet news, interactive conferencing, and
others. Group messaging allows several people to join a conversation.

Database Management Systems (DBMS)




They are used to share data on a network. DBMS standards for distributed databases:


* SQL - Structured Query Language is a database access language. It is used by most client/server database applications.
* ODBC
- Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) from Microsoft lets application
developers integrate database connections in applications. It is an
application programming interface (API). ODBC drivers convert an
application's query into SQL and send it to the database engine
program.
* DRDA - Distributed Relational Database Architecture is from IBM.




When information is processed in a distributed database, it is called a transaction. The two phases of a transaction are:


1. Write
or Update - The data is temporarily updated. An abort can cancel what
this phase did by removing the changed data from a temporary storage
area.
2. Commit - The changed data is made permanent in the database.


Databases
store multiple copies of the data which is called replication. They
must be sure the various copies of the database on various servers is
accurate with identical data. Data is also partitioned into smaller
blocks of data.
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PostSubject: Re: Networking   Fri Aug 01, 2008 9:52 am

Network Operating Systems (NOS)




Network
operating systems typically are used to run computers that act as
servers. They provide the capabilities required for network operation.
Network operating systems are also designed for client computers and
provide functions so the distinction between network operating systems
and stand alone operating systems is not always obvious. Network
operating systems provide the following functions:


* File and print sharing.
* Account administration for users.
* Security.




Installed Components


* Client functionality
* Server functionality




Functions provided:


* Account Administration for users
* Security
* File and print sharing




Network services


* File Sharing
* Print sharing
* User administration
* Backing up data




Universal Naming Convention (UNC)


A
universal naming convention (UNC) is used to allow the use of shared
resources without mapping a drive to them. The UNC specifies a path
name and has the form:


\\servername\pathname


If
I have a Linux server called "linux3" with a folder named "downloads"
with a file called "readme.txt" in the folder, the UNC is:


\\linux3\downloads\readme.txt

Network Operating System Examples




* Windows
NT server and workstation - Can use multiple processors and run on
Intel or RISC computers. Performs preemptive multitasking.
* Windows
95 - Cannot use multiple processors or run on RISC computers. It cannot
use NT drivers, but it can use older drivers.
* OS/2
- supports preemptive multitasking and multithreading and protects
applications from each other. It runs on Intel or RISC computers.
Supports 1 processor. Requires a minimum of a 386 and 8M of RAM. Some
DOS drivers will work for OS/2. Won't run on DEC Alpha systems.
* MacIntosh
- supports cooperative and preemptive multitasking and uses a windows,
icons, mouse environment for system control.


DNS



General
Domain
Name System (DNS) is used on the internet to correlate between IP
address and readable names. There are servers providing DNS information
to clients. The part of the system sending the queries is called the
resolver and is the client side of the configuration. The name server
answers the queries. Read RFCs 1034 and 1035. These contain the bulk of
the DNS information and are superceded by RFCs 1535-1537. Naming is in
RFC 1591. The main function of DNS is the mapping of IP addresses to
human readable names.

Three main components of DNS


1. resolver
2. name server
3. database of resource records(RRs)




The
Domain Name System (DNS) is basically a large database which resides on
various computers and it contains the names and IP addresses of various
hosts on the internet and various domains. The Domain Name System is
similar to a file system in Unix or DOS starting with a root. Branches
attach to the root to create a huge set of paths. Each branch in the
DNS is called a label. Each label can be 63 characters long, but most
are less. Each text word between the dots can be 63 characters in
length, with the total domain name (all the labels) limited to 255
bytes in overall length. The domain name system database is divided
into sections called zones. The name servers in their respective zones
are responsible for answering queries for their zones. A zone is a
subtree of DNS and is administered separately. There are multiple name
servers for a zone. There is usually one primary name server and one or
more secondary name servers. A name server may be authoritative for
more than one zone.

DNS names are assigned through the Internet
Registries by the Internet Assigned Number Authority (IANA). The domain
name is a name assigned to a domain. For example, mycollege.edu
represents the domain name of an educational institution. The names
microsoft.com and 3Com.com represent the domain name at those
commercial companies. Naming hosts within the domain is up to
individuals administer their domain.

Access to the Domain name
database is through a resolver which may be a program that resides on
users? workstations. In Unix the resolver is accessed by using the
library functions "gethostbyname" and "gethostbyaddr". The resolver
will send requests to the name servers to return information requested
by the user. The requesting computer tries to connect to the name
server using its IP address rather than the name.

Structure and message format




The
drawing below shows a partial DNS hierarchy. At the top is what is
called the root and it is the start of all other branches in the DNS
tree. It is designated with a period. Each branch moves down from level
to level. When referring to DNS addresses, they are referred to from
the bottom up with the root designator (period) at the far right.
Example: "myhost.mycompany.com.".


DNS
is hierarchical in structure. A domain is a subtree of the domain name
space. From the root, the assigned top-level domains in the U.S. are:


* GOV - Government body.
* EDU - Educational body.
* INT - International organization
* NET - Networks
* COM - Commercial entity.
* MIL - U. S. Military.
* ORG - Any other organization not previously listed.




Outside this list are top level domains for various countries.

Each
node on the domain name system is separated by a ".". Example:
"mymachine.mycompany.com.". Note that any name ending in a "." is an
absolute domain name since it goes back to root.
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PostSubject: Re: Networking   Fri Aug 01, 2008 9:53 am

Network Drivers




Network
driver interfaces allow multiple protocol stacks to use one network
interface card. The two in use today are listed below. They are not
compatible with each other.

Open Driver Interface (ODI)




ODI
is normally found on NetWare networks and was developed by Novell and
Apple. It competes with Microsoft's NDIS interface. It consists of:


* Multiple Protocol Interface - Provides connectivity from the data link layer to the network layer.
* Link
Support Layer - It includes functions for managing protocol stack
assignments and coordinating numbers assigned to MLIDs.
* Multiple-Link
Interface Driver (MLID) - Passes data between the data link layer and
the hardware or the network media. The drivers are
protocol-independent.




Allows multiple drivers to be used on one card and lets one protocol use multiple cards.

Network Driver Interface Specification (NDIS)




NDIS,
from Microsoft, is used on Microsoft networks. It allows multiple
protocols to be used on a network card and supports the data link layer
of the network model.

Transport Driver Interface (TDI)




This
is a standard for passing messages between the drivers at the data link
layer and the protocols working at the network layer such as IP or
NetBEUI. It was produced by Microsoft.
The network device driver must be compatable with ODI or NDIS in order to use the respective interfaces.
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PostSubject: Re: Networking   Fri Aug 01, 2008 9:55 am

NetBEUI



NetBIOS,
NetBEUI, and SMB are Microsoft Protocols used to support Microsoft
Networking. The following parts of Microsoft networking stack work at
the application level:


* Redirector
- It directs requests for network resources to the appropriate server
and makes network resources seem to be local resources.
* SMB - Server Message Block provides redirector client to server communication.




Other parts of the stack include:


* NetBIOS - Works at the session layer and controls the sessions between computers and maintains connections.
* NetBEUI
- Works at the transport layer and provides data transportation. It is
not a routable transport protocol which is why NBT exists on large
networks to use routable TCP protocol on large networks.




NetBEUI can now handle more than 254 sessions.


NWLink is Microsoft's way of implementing IPX/SPX.

Network Protocols used by NetBIOS for network transport




Microsoft can bind its protocol to use any combination of NetBEUI, NWLink, or TCP/IP for transport.


* NBT - NetBIOS over TCP/IP
* NBF - NetBIOS over NetBEUI
* NWNBLink - NetBIOS over NWLink
*

NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NBT)




NetBIOS
messages are encapsulated in TCP/IP or NetBEUI datagrams. When
utilizing TCP/IP for transport, the protocol is called NetBIOS over
TCP/IP (NBT). It is defined by RFC 1001 and RFC 1002. NetBIOS has three
layers which are:


* SMB - Server Message Block protocol works at the presentation level to provide peer to peer communication.
* NetBIOS API - Works at the session layer.
* NBF - NetBIOS Frame protocol




NetBIOS may utilize NetBEUI for transport and network layer support rather than TCP/IP.

NetBIOS Extended User Interface (NetBEUI)




This
is a separate protocol from NetBIOS. Supports small to medium networks.
It provides transport and network layer support. NDS and the NIC driver
provide data link level support. It is fast and small. Since it is
small, it works well for the DOS operating system. It is not a routable
protocol.

Name Resolution




NetBIOS
names are 15 characters long with a 16th invisible character assigned
by the system that is based on function. Three methods of mapping
NetBIOS names to IP addresses:


* IP
broadcasting - A data packet with the NetBIOS computer name is
broadcast when an associated address is not in the local cache. The
host who has that name returns its address.
* The lmhosts file - This is a file that maps IP addresses and NetBIOS computer names.
* NBNS
- NetBIOS Name Server. A server that maps NetBIOS names to IP
addresses. This service is provided by the nmbd daemon on Linux.




System wide methods of resolving NetBIOS names to IP addresses are:


* b-node - Broadcast node
* p-node - Point-to-point node queries an NBNS name server to resolve addresses.
* m-node - First uses broadcasts, then falls back to querying an NBNS name server.
* h-node
- The system first attempts to query an NBNS name server, then falls
back to broadcasts if the name server fails. As a last resort, it will
look for the lmhosts file locally.




NetBIOS name services use port 137 and NetBIOS session services use port 139. NetBIOS datagram service uses port 138.


To
resolve addresses from names, a computer on a Microsoft network will
check its cache to see if the address of the computer it wants to
connect to is listed there. If not it sends a NetBIOS broadcast
requesting the computer with the name to respond with its hardware
address. When the address is received, NetBIOS will start a session
between the computers. On larger networks that use routers, this is a
problem since routers do not forward broadcasts, nor is NetBEUI a
routable protocol. Therefore Microsoft implemented another method of
resolving names with the Windows Internet Name Service (WINS). The
following steps are taken to resolve names to IP addresses on larger
networks using TCP/IP (NBT):


* NetBIOS name cache
* WINS Server
* NetBIOS broadcast
* lmhosts file
* hosts file
* DNS server



Windows Internet Name Service (WINS)




WINS is the Microsoft implementation of NetBIOS name service. Samba on Linux can be used as a WINS server.


Computers
configured to use WINS, when booted, contact the WINS name server and
give the server their NetBIOS name and IP address. The WINS server adds
the information to its database and it may send the information to
other WINS servers on your network. When a computer that is configured
to use WINS needs to get an address of another computer, it will
contact the WINS server for the information. Without the use of a WINS
server, NetBIOS will only be able to see computers on the unrouted
sections of the local network. Does this mean a WINS server must exist
in each routed section of the network?

The Windows Networking Environment




A
domain in a Microsoft networking environment refers to a collection of
computers using user level security. It is not the same as the term
domain used with regard to the domain name system (DNS). Domain related
terms are:


* BDC - Backup Domain Controller is a backup for a PDC
* TLD - Top Level domain
* PDC
- Primary Domain Controller is an NT server providing central control
of user access permissions and accounts on a network.

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PostSubject: Re: Networking   Fri Aug 01, 2008 9:55 am

Network Protocol Categories and Definitions

First
of all you should be aware of the fact, that when talking about
networking you will hear the word "protocol" all the time. This is
because protocols are sets of standards that define all operations
within a network. They may even define how devices outside the network
can interact with the network. Protocols define everything from basic
networking data structures, to higher level application programs. They
define various services and utility programs. The protocols are
outlined in Request for Comments (RFCs). Protocols operate at one or
more layers of the OSI network model. A set of protocols used for
networking is called a stack.



Categories of protocols:


* Connection type

1. Connection-oriented
- A protocol that relies on connection establishment between two
computers. Connection oriented protocols are considered to be reliable
protocols since there is a check to be sure the data was received.
2. Connectionless - Not relying on a connection. It is considered to be an unreliable means of communication.

* Routing

1. Routable - The protocol can be sent through a network router.
2. Non-routable - Cannot be sent through a network router. Three main commonly used protocol stacks
3. TCP/IP - Routable protocol with more overhead is used on the internet.
4. IPX/SPX - Routable medium speed protocol from Novell.
5. NetBEUI - Non routable fast protocol.
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PostSubject: Re: Networking   Today at 5:36 pm

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